Psychotherapy CPT codes

psychotherapy CPT codes, CPT Codes for mental health, CPT codes

Psychotherapy CPT codes are essential knowledge for a mental health professional as it is the root for effective billing, accurate documentation, and tracking patient progress. In this article, we will delve into the background and development of CPT, explore its various applications in mental health practice, discuss the coding process, and examine the validity and reliability of CPT. We will also touch upon potential future changes to CPT and their impact on mental health services.

Background and development of CPT 

The history of Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) dates back to the 1960s when the American Medical Association (AMA) recognized the need for a standardized coding system to streamline the billing and documentation processes in healthcare. In 1966, the AMA introduced the first edition of CPT, consisting of approximately 3,500 codes. Over the years, CPT has undergone significant development to keep up with the evolving healthcare landscape.

The development process was a collaboration between the AMA and a dedicated editorial panel known as the CPT Editorial Panel. This panel is composed of experts from various medical specialties, including mental health. The CPT Editorial Panel regularly reviews and updates the code set to ensure its accuracy, relevance, and comprehensiveness. This process involves soliciting input from healthcare professionals, medical societies, and other stakeholders to capture the evolving nature of medical procedures and services.

CPT codes categories are divided into three types.
  • Category I codes are the most familiar and widely used. They describe procedures and services that have proven clinical efficacy and are commonly performed. These codes include evaluation and management services, psychotherapy sessions, and psychiatric diagnostic evaluations.
  • Category II codes are optional and provide additional information for quality reporting purposes. These codes enable the collection of data on performance measures, patient outcomes, and adherence to best practices.
  • Category III codes are temporary codes assigned to emerging technologies, procedures, and services that are still undergoing evaluation. They allow for tracking the usage and effectiveness of these emerging interventions while awaiting potential inclusion in Category I codes.


The different types of CPT codes cater to the diverse needs of healthcare providers, ensuring accurate representation and appropriate reimbursement for services rendered. This standardized system simplifies the billing process, reduces ambiguity, and promotes consistency in coding practices across healthcare organizations. It also facilitates data collection for research, quality improvement, and healthcare policy initiatives, ultimately enhancing patient care and outcomes.

As healthcare continues to evolve, the development and refinement of CPT codes will continue to adapt to new procedures, technologies, and healthcare delivery models. By staying current with these changes, mental health professionals can effectively utilize CPT codes to accurately document services, optimize reimbursement, and contribute to the advancement of the field.


Uses of CPT codes in mental health practice

Psychotherapy CPT codes have numerous applications in the field of healthcare, playing a crucial role in various areas. Let's explore the key areas where CPT is useful and how it benefits mental health professionals.

Psychotherapy CPT codes are instrumental in the process of billing and reimbursement. Mental health professionals can use these codes to accurately and comprehensively represent the services they provide to patients. By assigning the appropriate CPT codes to procedures, evaluations, and interventions, healthcare providers can ensure that they are properly reimbursed for their services. Insurance companies, government programs, and third-party payers rely on psychotherapy CPT codes to determine the appropriate reimbursement rates for specific services rendered. 

Psychotherapy CPT codes also play a vital role in documenting and tracking patient progress. Mental health professionals utilize psychotherapy CPT codes to document the services provided during each session or encounter with a patient. This documentation is crucial for maintaining accurate records of the treatments, interventions, and evaluations conducted. 

Psychotherapy CPT codes facilitate the ability to track patient progress over time. By consistently documenting the services provided using specific psychotherapy CPT codes, mental health professionals can create a comprehensive picture of a patient's treatment journey. This documentation helps in evaluating the effectiveness of interventions and treatment plans, identifying patterns or trends in the patient's progress, and making informed decisions about future treatment strategies. Psychotherapy CPT codes provide a standardized language that enables healthcare providers to communicate with each other, allowing for seamless transitions in care and facilitating a collaborative approach to patient management.

Psychotherapy CPT codes can also support research and data analysis. Aggregated data from CPT-coded services can be analyzed to identify trends, treatment outcomes, and areas for improvement in mental health care. Researchers can use this data to evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions, compare treatment approaches, and contribute to evidence-based practices in the field of mental health.

Start Your Free Trial

CPT codes for mental health services 

CPT codes for mental health services can sometimes be challenging. When it comes to mental health services, several CPT codes are commonly used to capture the different aspects of care. 

The psychotherapy CPT code process involves a systematic approach to accurately assign the appropriate codes to mental health services.

The first step in the psychotherapy CPT code process is to understand the services provided during a mental health session or encounter. Mental health professionals carefully assess the procedures, evaluations, and interventions conducted to determine the appropriate psychotherapy CPT codes that best represent the services rendered. Accurate documentation and thorough notes from the session are essential for coding.

In mental health services, several psychotherapy CPT codes are commonly used to capture the different aspects of care. For instance, an evaluation and management (E/M) code is frequently employed. 

Examples of E/M codes used in mental health services include:
  • 99201-99205: These codes are used for new patient evaluations, reflecting varying levels of complexity and time spent in the assessment and management of the patient's condition.
  • 99211-99215: These codes are used for established patient visits, again varying in complexity and time spent with the patient.


Additionally, CPT codes for mental health fall into timed and for specific use cases like intake and individual or group codes.

The most popular psychotherapy CPT codes for mental health
9083760-minute psychotherapy sessionUsually a 60-minute session, although sessions longer than 52 minutes can be billed with this code. Meetings must be face to face.
9083445-minute psychotherapy session (38 to 52 minutes)Similar to above except for a shorter time. This may be the most used code in mental health.
9083230-minute psychotherapy session (16 to 37 minutes)The 30-minute session is rarer but increasing in frequency in the telemedicine age. You can see someone for only 16 minutes and still use this code.
90791Psychiatric Diagnostic EvaluationThe code for the traditional intake session (e.g., assessing the presenting problem and/or providing a mental status exam.)
90792Psychiatric Diagnostic Evaluation with Medical ServicesHow a psychiatrist may code an intake session. The difference from 90791 is that a psychiatrist is a medical doctor who might assess the need for medical services, such as prescription medication.
90847Family or couples psychotherapy, with the patient present (50 minutes)This code is used for family therapy techniques in a session with multiple family members or a couple. The identified patient must be present.
90846Family or couples psychotherapy, without the patient present (50 minutes)Used for family therapy techniques in a session with multiple family members without the identified patient. This code is more controversial because the identified patient is not present. If you use this code too often, an insurance company may question why you are not including the identified patient.
90853Group Psychotherapy (not family)A treatment group for unrelated people, such as addiction or dialectical behavior therapy. Not the same as a support group.
90839Psychotherapy for Crisis, 60 minutes (30-74 minutes)This code is used in a crisis situation. If a patient is suicidal, for instance, and they require therapy to prevent self-harm and ensure stabilization.
Other considerations for psychotherapy CPT codes

Additionally, mental health professionals should be aware of payer-specific guidelines and requirements. Different insurance companies and government programs may have specific rules and documentation requirements for mental health coding. Staying up to date with these guidelines ensures compliance and accurate reimbursement for services provided.

Regular education and training on psychotherapy CPT codes are essential for mental health professionals to stay informed about changes, updates, and best practices. Professional organizations and resources can provide valuable guidance and support in mastering CPT codes for mental health services.

Telehealth with modifiers and codes

The AMA has addressed the use of telemedicine by using modifiers rather than introducing entirely new codes. In behavioral health, the modifier 95 is added to the original code to signify teletherapy.

For example, you would add the 95 modifier to 90834 to signify a 45-minute teletherapy session (i.e., 90834-95). To be billed with this modifier, a face-to-face video session needs to have occurred. Texting is not yet recognized as a billable service.

If you plan on providing teletherapy services to your clients make sure that they sign telehealth consent form.

Place of service codes

You will also need to add a place of service codes. This tells the insurance company where the service occurred. Traditionally, providers may perform their work at a school, office, or hospital and should use the corresponding modifier. If you are performing telehealth, you would use the codes 02 and 10.

POS 02 indicates that the client received health or health-related services outside of their home using telehealth.

POS 10 indicates that health services and health-related services were provided in the home (specifically a location other than a hospital or other facility where the patient receives care in a private residence) using telehealth.

Keep in mind that if you are providing a service in a facility (e.g., a hospital or nursing home), you will get paid a bit less than if you perform that same service in an office setting due to a lack of overhead.

How to avoid psychotherapy CPT code errors
  • Be accurate: Insurance companies keep close track of how you bill services. Do not try to overcode to make more money (e.g., billing a 60-minute session when it was only 45) or undercode to try to reduce patient costs. If you are providing incorrect psychotherapy CPT codes, you may be audited and kicked off an insurance panel and possibly charged for fraud.


  • Don’t confuse psychotherapy CPT codes and DSM/ICD codes: Psychotherapy CPT codes relay the types of service provided whereas ICD codes report what condition those services are treating. Although they are different, they are related. Documentation about a patient’s diagnosis needs to reflect the level of care they are receiving. For example, if you give a patient a less severe diagnosis (e.g., persistent depressive disorder) and are then trying to see them for 60-minute sessions five times a week, that might raise a red flag.


  • Complete all data accurately: If you work in an institution or a large private practice, you likely have staff members who are in charge of insurance billing. They are usually very skilled but cannot fill in codes without access to proper information. If you don’t fill out all the pertinent codes, the staff will be frustrated and your payment may be delayed.


  • Consider tools with auto-populated psychotherapy CPT codes: EMR/practice management software for your private practice can help you manage your psychotherapy CPT codes electronically. 


Validity and reliability of CPT for mental health

The validity and reliability of CPT codes for mental health services are crucial for ensuring accurate and consistent measurement of healthcare procedures and interventions. CPT codes for mental health possess robust psychometric properties that contribute to their validity and reliability. 

Validity refers to the extent to which CPT codes for mental health accurately measure the intended constructs or services provided. In the context of mental health services, CPT codes have been extensively validated to ensure they capture the specific procedures and interventions offered by mental health professionals. 

Reliability, on the other hand, pertains to the consistency and stability of CPT codes for mental health over time and across different raters or coders. CPT codes demonstrate high inter-rater reliability, meaning that multiple coders are likely to assign the same codes to the same services consistently. The validity and reliability of CPT codes for mental health services provide a solid foundation for accurate billing, documentation, and research.

Future of CPT 

The world of healthcare is continually evolving, and CPT codes for mental health is no exception. As healthcare continues to evolve, CPT codes are likely to undergo updates and revisions to adapt to emerging practices, advancements in technology, and evolving healthcare delivery models. 

One potential change in the future of CPT codes for mental health is the addition or modification of codes to reflect new interventions, therapies, or treatment modalities that may emerge in the field of mental health. This could include the inclusion of codes for innovative approaches such as virtual reality therapy or telehealth services, which have become more prevalent in recent years.

Changes to CPT codes for mental health can significantly change services. The addition of new codes can improve the accuracy and specificity of coding, allowing mental health professionals to better capture the complexity and nuances of the services they provide. This can lead to more precise billing, improved reimbursement rates, and enhanced documentation of patient care.

Moreover, changes to CPT codes for mental health may also have implications for the integration of services into integrated healthcare settings. As mental health becomes increasingly recognized as an integral component of overall healthcare, there may be efforts to streamline CPT coding practices and promote a more unified approach across different specialties. This can facilitate better coordination of care, interdisciplinary collaboration, and a more comprehensive understanding of patient needs.

Furthermore, changes to psychotherapy CPT codes can impact research and data analysis in the mental health field. New CPT codes for mental health that reflect emerging interventions or treatment modalities can provide valuable data for evaluating their effectiveness and outcomes. Researchers can use this data to contribute to evidence-based practices and guide future developments in mental health care.

Similarly to the way the field of psychotherapy is always adapting to changes, the future of CPT codes for mental health holds the potential for changes that can impact service. These changes may include the addition or modification of codes to reflect emerging practices and technologies. 

Adapting to these changes can improve the accuracy of coding, enhance reimbursement rates, support integrated healthcare, and contribute to research and evidence-based practices in the field of mental health. Clinicians should stay updated with the evolving landscape of CPT codes for mental health to effectively navigate future changes and ensure optimal patient care.


Start 30-day Free Trial and explore TheraPlatform. HIPAA Compliant Video and Practice Management Software for Therapists.

Resources for CPT codes for mental health 

American Medical Association (AMA) - The official website of the AMA provides comprehensive information on CPT coding, including updates, guidelines, and resources. Psychotherapists can access the latest CPT codes for mental health, updated information, documentation requirements, and educational materials through the AMA's CPT section.

American Psychiatric Association (APA) - The APA offers valuable resources and guidance on CPT coding for mental health professionals. Psychotherapists can find coding updates, educational webinars, and practical tools on the APA's website. The APA also provides publications and courses that focus on coding and reimbursement in mental health practice. 

National Correct Coding Initiative (NCCI) - The NCCI provides official coding guidelines and edits to ensure accurate coding and appropriate reimbursement. Psychotherapists can access the NCCI Policy Manual for Medicare Services, which outlines bundling and unbundling rules, coding edits, and common coding scenarios. The NCCI website also offers resources and educational materials related to CPT codes for mental health.

American Academy of Professional Coders (AAPC) - The AAPC is a professional organization that offers resources and training on medical coding, including CPT coding for mental health. Psychotherapists can access educational articles, webinars, and forums to stay updated with coding changes and best practices. The AAPC also provides certification programs for medical coders. 

TheraPlatform, an all-in-one EHR, practice management and teletherapy tool can help make billing and using psychotherapy CPT codes easier. They offer a 30-day free trial with no credit card required. Cancel anytime.

More resources
Free video classes

Practice Management, EHR/EMR and Teletherapy Platform

Exclusive therapy apps and games

Start 30 Day FREE TRIAL
telehealth insurance, teletherapy insurance, telepractice insurance, converge for telepractice, insurance for teletherapy, telehealth and insurance, file claim teletherapy, teletherapy insurance submit, HIPAA compliant video conferencing, HIPAA compliant video conferencing platform.
Insurance, telehealth and you

HIPAA-compliant video conferencing is a great first step in launching teletherapy. The next question to ask is "How will I get paid?"

90847 CPT Code, 90846 CPT Code , family therapy billing, couples counseling billing
90847 CPT Code and 90846 CPT Code: Billing the right way

90847 CPT Code and 90846 CPT Code are used to bill couples and families receiving counseling. Can you legitimately bill for these services?

Subscribe to our newsletter