countertransference, countertransference in therapy, example of counter transference, countertransference in psychology, types of countertransference, difference between transference and countertransference?

Countertransference is a crucial topic for therapists to grasp to treat clients ethically. Countertransference involves how therapists emotionally respond to their clients based on their unresolved issues or personal experiences. Understanding countertransference is crucial because it gives therapists valuable insights into their biases, feelings, and reactions that can impact the therapeutic process.

A deeper understanding of countertransference can help therapists improve self-awareness, enhance client outcomes, and foster stronger therapeutic connections. So, let us delve into the fascinating world of countertransference and discover how it can transform therapy for the better. 

What is countertransference?

Definition and its origins in psychoanalytic theory

Countertransference, rooted in psychoanalytic theory, refers to a therapist's emotional reactions and unconscious responses triggered by the client during therapy sessions. Originally coined by Sigmund Freud, countertransference is a result of the therapist projecting their unresolved conflicts and feelings onto the client. While initially viewed as an interference in therapy, contemporary perspectives recognize countertransference as a valuable source of information that can enhance therapeutic understanding and effectiveness.

How countertransference manifests in therapy

Countertransference can manifest in various ways within the therapeutic setting. It may involve the therapist experiencing strong positive or negative emotions towards the client, feeling overly sympathetic or critical, or even developing personal biases. These emotions can be evoked by the client's behaviors, words, or even resemblances to significant figures from the therapist's past. Countertransference can also manifest as a disruption in the therapeutic process, leading the therapist to over-identify with the client or struggle to maintain professional boundaries. Therapists need to recognize these manifestations and explore their underlying roots to ensure the therapy remains focused on the client's needs.

How countertransference impacts the therapeutic process

Countertransference can significantly impact the therapeutic process, both positively and negatively. When appropriately recognized and managed, countertransference can provide valuable insights into the client's internal world, helping the therapist gain a deeper understanding of their experiences and emotions. This enhanced awareness can inform the therapist's interventions and contribute to more accurate interpretations. 

Conversely, unacknowledged or unaddressed countertransference can hinder the therapy process. It may lead to biased interpretations, the imposition of personal beliefs onto the client, or a failure to recognize and address important issues. It can also impair the establishment of a strong therapeutic alliance, as clients may sense the therapist's unresolved emotions and perceive a lack of empathy or understanding.

To mitigate the potential negative impacts of countertransference, therapists must cultivate self-awareness and engage in regular supervision or consultation. This allows for a reflective space where therapists can explore their reactions, biases, and unresolved conflicts, ensuring they do not interfere with the therapeutic relationship. Additionally, therapists can use countertransference as a valuable tool for personal growth and self-discovery, ultimately enhancing their ability to provide effective and empathetic care to their clients.

How to recognize countertransference

Common signs and symptoms of countertransference

Several common signs and symptoms can indicate the presence of countertransference. One such sign is an excessive emotional reaction towards the client, such as feeling intense anger, sadness, or attraction without a clear therapeutic rationale.

The therapist may also experience a strong need for approval or a desire to rescue the client, indicating the activation of personal needs or unresolved issues. Another common symptom is over-identification, where the therapist excessively empathizes with the client's struggles, potentially blurring professional boundaries.

On the other hand, countertransference can also manifest as a sense of discomfort or aversion towards the client, leading to disengagement from the therapeutic process. These signs and symptoms serve as red flags, signaling the presence of countertransference dynamics that require attention and exploration.

Some clear indicators that countertransference has become an issue may be:

Not wanting to see a specific client

Certain clients are difficult. And you may not personally like them. This is a common occurrence. But when you have extreme feelings of dislike and dread about seeing a particular client, this may be a sign of countertransference.

Overly positive views of a client

The flip side is also true. If you are enamored with a client and look forward to seeing them, you may have positive countertransference. It is typical to like certain clients more than others but if you find yourself wishing to spend time with them outside of work, it may be a problem.

Becoming overprotective with minors

When treating children, a therapist may find themselves taking on a parental role. They want to protect the child at all costs and minimize the child’s negative behavior. While you want to be an advocate for the children you see, it is crucial to retain objectivity.

Romantic and/or sexual feelings

As noted above, many therapists are attracted to their clients. This is not a problem as long as a therapist acknowledges it and sets strong boundaries. However, if you are lax and allow some flirtation to occur, it can become a slippery slope with terrible consequences for both you and the client.

Becoming too involved with a specific client

Have you ever found yourself preoccupied with a case? You may feel like you have noble intentions thinking about a client when you are off the clock but if you can’t get them out of your head it may be an indicator of countertransference.

Another countertransference problem may occur if your client has issues that hit too close to home. For instance, say you were physically abused as a child by your father. Then you begin seeing a child who has been abused by their father. You find yourself lashing out at the father even though you are supposed to be helping them reconcile. In this case, your unresolved personal feelings might become an impediment to successful treatment.

Effects of countertransference on the therapeutic relationship

Countertransference, when unaddressed or mishandled, can significantly impact the therapeutic relationship. The therapist's unresolved emotions and biases can cloud their judgment, leading to biased interpretations and interventions. Clients may perceive this lack of objectivity and feel misunderstood or judged, hindering the establishment of trust and rapport. Countertransference can also disrupt the balance of power in the therapeutic relationship, as the therapist's emotional reactions may influence the direction and focus of the therapy, potentially overshadowing the client's needs and goals. Additionally, countertransference can create an imbalance in the therapeutic alliance, as clients may sense the therapist's unresolved emotions and question the authenticity and effectiveness of the therapy.

Countertransference and ethical or boundary violations

Countertransference, if not properly managed, can lead to ethical and boundary violations within the therapeutic relationship. Therapists may find themselves overstepping professional boundaries due to their emotional reactions, either by disclosing personal information, offering personal advice, or engaging in dual relationships. These boundary violations can compromise the therapist's objectivity, professional integrity, and the client's well-being. Countertransference can also lead to biased treatment decisions or interventions that do not align with the client's best interests. For example, a therapist's unconscious biases may result in favoritism or discrimination towards certain clients, impeding fair and unbiased treatment.

Ethical considerations related to countertransference

Ethical considerations surrounding countertransference primarily revolve around maintaining professional boundaries, ensuring client autonomy and welfare, and upholding the integrity of the therapeutic process. Ethical guidelines require therapists to be aware of and address their countertransference reactions to prevent them from interfering with the client's treatment. Therapists must prioritize the client's needs and goals, providing unbiased and appropriate care.

Ethical violations due to countertransference can have significant impacts

Ethical violations related to countertransference can have severe consequences for therapists, both professionally and personally. Licensing boards and professional associations uphold ethical standards and may investigate complaints of boundary violations or misconduct. If found guilty, therapists may face disciplinary actions, ranging from reprimands to license suspension or revocation. Ethical violations can also damage a therapist's reputation within the professional community and among potential clients. News of misconduct spreads quickly, potentially resulting in a loss of trust and a decline in referrals. Therefore, addressing and managing countertransference ethically not only protects the client but also safeguards the therapist's professional standing and reputation.

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Addressing countertransference appropriately

Recognizing countertransference is only part of the battle. Learning how to effectively deal with it is the necessary conclusion.

Steps to manage countertransference


Supervision is invaluable for any therapist. It can take the form of mentorship or a peer relationship. Some therapists even take part in group supervision. Talking about cases with other professionals gives you the benefit of their insight when you may be lacking objectivity and self-awareness. They will likely be able to spot your countertransference (and maybe client transference) if you cannot.

Strong boundaries

Setting limits for yourself in the therapeutic relationship is a critical preventative measure in managing countertransference. Having lines that you will not cross stops you from finding yourself in an ethical and moral dilemma. For instance, maybe you adopt a rule where you refuse all gifts from clients to help eliminate any personal or romantic entanglements.


It is a good idea to debrief yourself after each client or at the end of your workday. You can evaluate yourself for any extreme feelings or inappropriate behavior you may be exhibiting toward a particular client.

Remove yourself from a case

This is a last resort but if you find you want to cross a line with a client and it is jeopardizing their or your well-being, it may be recommended to refer them to another therapist. A therapist that develops sexual feelings for a client, for example, is well-advised to stop therapy if they feel like they can’t manage it productively. Because you never want your client to feel abandoned, it is not a step to be taken lightly and should be done with care.

Working through countertransference in supervision

Supervision plays a pivotal role in helping therapists navigate and work through countertransference. By providing a supportive and reflective space, supervisors can assist therapists in recognizing, understanding, and addressing their countertransference reactions. In supervision sessions, therapists have the opportunity to explore the underlying reasons behind their emotional responses, such as personal triggers or unresolved issues.

Supervisors can offer valuable insights and alternative perspectives, helping therapists gain a clearer understanding of the dynamics at play. They may also guide how to manage countertransference in real time during therapy sessions.

One effective approach in supervision is the use of self-reflection and introspection. Therapists are encouraged to engage in honest self-assessment, examining their thoughts, emotions, and biases that emerge during therapy. This process helps therapists gain self-awareness and recognize patterns in their countertransference reactions. Additionally, supervisors may use techniques like role-play or guided imagery to help therapists explore their feelings and reactions in a safe and controlled environment.

Supervision also offers a collaborative platform where therapists can seek feedback and guidance from experienced professionals. Supervisors can share their own experiences, provide constructive feedback, and suggest alternative perspectives or interventions. This collaborative process empowers therapists to develop strategies for effectively managing countertransference, enhancing their skills and competence in therapy.

Addressing countertransference can improve a therapist’s skills

Addressing countertransference in therapy not only benefits clients but also enhances therapist self-awareness and emotional regulation. By acknowledging and working through their countertransference reactions, therapists gain deeper insights into their own emotions, triggers, and blind spots. This increased self-awareness enables therapists to recognize their personal biases and prevent them from interfering with the therapeutic relationship. It also allows therapists to be more present and attuned to their clients' needs, facilitating more empathetic and effective interventions.

Additionally, addressing countertransference promotes emotional regulation within therapists. Through supervision and self-reflection, therapists learn to manage and process the intense emotional reactions triggered by clients. They develop strategies to separate their own emotions from those of their clients, preventing personal issues from overshadowing the therapeutic work. As therapists become more skilled in recognizing and regulating their emotions, they are better equipped to maintain a calm and composed presence in the therapy room, fostering a safe and supportive environment for clients and building a better therapeutic alliance.

Ultimately, by working through countertransference; the process allows therapists to continuously grow and evolve, ensuring their own personal and professional development aligns with the best interests of the individuals they serve.


Introduction to Countertransference in Therapeutic Practice: A Myriad of Mirrors is a book edited by Paola Valerio that comes highly recommended for therapists learning about countertransference.

The American Psychological Association (APA) Division 39 Section on Psychoanalysis. This section of the APA's website provides resources, articles, and information related to psychoanalysis, including countertransference.

Science Direct also offers several other book resources for learning about and helping with countertransference. is a user-friendly, all-in-one EHR, practice management, and teletherapy software designed specifically for therapists. Sign up for a free, 30-day trial to see how you can save time on admin tasks. No credit card is required. Cancel anytime.

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